How phosphate fertilizers are produced

How phosphate fertilizers are produced 

Phosphate Rock mining and beneficiation

Phosphorus, in the form of phosphate is a non-renewable resource. It cannot be artificially produced. Phosphate rock is the raw material used in the manufacture of most commercial phosphate fertilizers. Phosphates are mined from naturally occurring mineral deposits that were once sediments at the bottom of ancient seas. Once mined, phosphate rock is then separated from particles of sand and clay (beneficiated) and sent to a processing plant.

Phosphoric acid production 

In the processing plant phosphate rock is treated with sulphuric acid to produce phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum. Phosphoric acid is the intermediary product for the production of all high grade phosphate fertilizers. The weak phosphoric acid produced from acid attacking phosphate rock is first clarified then concentrated for the production of fertilizers. The by-product phosphogypsum is stockpiled. 

DAP/MAP production

Concentrated phosphoric acid is neutralised with ammonia and granulated to produce the final high grade fertilizer: DAP, MAP, SSP, TSP, etc. Granulated fertilizers are then packed, loaded and shipped to customers.

Phosphate fertilizers production flow-chart